Pathways to prevention: protocol for the CAP (Climate and Preventure) study to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of school-based universal, selective and combined alcohol misuse prevention into early adulthood
Article [Version of Record]
Is part ofBMC public health ; vol. 18, no. 1.
Background: Alcohol use and associated harms are among the leading causes of burden of disease among young people, highlighting the need for effective prevention. The Climate and Preventure (CAP) study was the first trial of a combined universal and selective school-based approach to preventing alcohol misuse among adolescents. Initial results indicate that universal, selective and combined prevention were all effective in delaying the uptake of alcohol use and binge drinking for up to 3 years following the interventions. However, little is known about the sustainability of prevention effects across the transition to early adulthood, a period of increased exposure to alcohol and other drug use. This paper describes the protocol for the CAP long-term follow-up study which will determine the effectiveness of universal, selective and combined alcohol misuse prevention up to 7 years post intervention, and across the transition from adolescence into early adulthood. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted between 2012 and 2015 with 2190 students (mean age: 13.3 yrs) from 26 Australian high schools. Participants were randomized to receive one of four conditions; universal prevention for all students (Climate); selective prevention for high-risk students (Preventure); combined universal and selective prevention (Climate and Preventure; CAP); or health education as usual (Control). The positive effect of the interventions on alcohol use at 12-, 24- and 36-month post baseline have previously been reported. This study will follow up the CAP study cohort approximately 5- and 7-years post baseline. The primary outcome will be alcohol use and related harms. Secondary outcomes will be cannabis use, alcohol and other drug harms including violent behavior, and mental health symptomatology. Analyses will be conducted using multi-level, mixed effects models within an intention-to-treat framework. Discussion: This study will provide the first ever evaluation of the long-term effectiveness of combining universal and selective approaches to alcohol prevention and will examine the durability of intervention effects into the longer-term, over a 7-year period from adolescence to early adulthood.