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Biomarkers of dementia in obstructive sleep apnea
Article [Accepted Manuscript]
Is part ofSleep medicine reviews ; vol. 42, pp. 139-148.
Epidemiologic and mechanistic evidence is increasingly supporting the notion that obstructive sleep apnea is a risk factor for dementia. Hence, the identification of patients at risk of cognitive decline due to obstructive sleep apnea may significantly improve preventive strategies and treatment decisionmaking. Cerebrospinal fluid and blood biomarkers obtained through genomic, proteomic and metabolomic approaches are improving the ability to predict incident dementia. Therefore, fluid biomarkers have the potential to predict vulnerability to neurodegeneration in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea, as well as deepen our understanding of pathophysiological processes linking obstructive sleep apnea and dementia. Many fluid biomarkers linked to Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia show abnormal levels in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea, suggesting that these conditions share common underlying mechanisms, including amyloid and tau protein neuropathology, inflammation, oxidative stress, and metabolic disturbances. Markers of these processes include amyloid-β, tau proteins, inflammatory cytokines, acute-phase proteins, antioxydants and oxidized products, homocysteine and clusterin (apolipoprotein J). Thus, these biomarkers may have the ability to identify adults with obstructive sleep apnea at high risk of dementia and provide an opportunity for therapeutic intervention. Large cohort studies are necessary to establish a specific fluid biomarker panel linking obstructive sleep apnea to dementia risk.