Phenotypic and genetic associations between reading comprehension, decoding skills, and ADHD dimensions : evidence from two population-based studies
Phenotypic and genetic associations between reading and ADHD
Article [Accepted Manuscript]
Is part ofJournal of child psychology and psychiatry ; vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 1074-1082.
BACKGROUND: The phenotypic and genetic associations between decoding skills and ADHD dimensions have been documented but less is known about the association with reading comprehension. The aim of the study is to document the phenotypic and genetic associations between reading comprehension and ADHD dimensions of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity in early schooling and compare them to those with decoding skills. METHODS: Data were collected in two population-based samples of twins (Quebec Newborn Twin Study - QNTS) and singletons (Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development - QLSCD) totaling ≈ 2300 children. Reading was assessed with normed measures in second or third grade. Teachers assessed ADHD dimensions in kindergarten and first grade. RESULTS: Both decoding and reading comprehension were correlated with ADHD dimensions in a similar way: associations with inattention remained after controlling for the other ADHD dimension, behavior disorder symptoms and nonverbal abilities, whereas associations with hyperactivity/impulsivity did not. Genetic modeling showed that decoding and comprehension largely shared the same genetic etiology at this age and that their associations with inattention were mostly explained by shared genetic influences. CONCLUSION: Both reading comprehension and decoding are uniquely associated with inattention through a shared genetic etiology.