Effect of dietary sodium restriction on taste perception of sodium chloride
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
- Faculté de médecine. Département de nutrition
The effect of dietary sodium restriction on perceived intensity of and preference for the taste of salt was evaluated in 76 adults, 25-49 years, with diastolic blood pressure between 79-90 mmHg. Participants were volunteers from clinical Hypertension Prevention Trials (HPT), at the University of California, Davis and the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Participants followed one of four HPT diets: 1600 mg Na+/day (NA, n=lS), 1600 mg Na+ plus 3200 mg K+/day (NK, n=lS), 1600 mg Na+/day plus energy restriction to achieve weight loss (NW, n=l3) and weight loss only (WT, n=l3). All participants attended regularly scheduled nutrition intervention meetings designed to help them achieve the HPT dietary goals. A fifth, no-intervention group, consisted of 20, no-diet-change controls CCN). Sodium, potassium and energy intakes were monitored by analysis of single, 24-hour food records and corresponding overnight urine specimens, obtained at baseline and after 12 and 24 weeks of intervention. Hedonic responses to sodium chloride in a prepared cream of green bean soup were assessed by two methods : 1) scaling of like/dislike for an NaCl concentration series on 10-cm graphie line scales and 2) ad libitum mixing of unsalted and salted soups to maximum level of liking. Salt content of the mixes was analyzed by sodium ion-selective electrode. The concentration series was also rated for perceived saltinessintensity on similar graphie line scales. Tests were conducted at baseline and after approximately 1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 13 and 24 weeks of intervention. Reduction in sodium intake and excretion in NA, NK and NW participants was accompanied by a shift in preference toward less saltiness in soup. The pattern of hedonic responses changed over time: scores for high NaCl concentrations decreased progressively while scores for low concentrations increased. Hedonic maxima shifted fran a concentration of 0.55% at the onset to 0.1-0.2% added NaCl at week 24. During the same time period, the preferred concentration of ad libitum mixes declined 50%. These shifts occurred independently of changes in saltiness intensity ratings, potassium or energy intakes, and were consistent across the two participating study sites. Like/dislike and sd. libitum responses were similar after 13 and 24 weeks of diet, as were measures of sodium intake and excretion. These findings suggest that after three months of sodium restriction, preference for salt had readjusted to a lower level, reflective of lower sodium intake. Mechanisms underlying the change in preference are unclear, but may include sensory, context, physiological as well as behavioral effects. In contrast, few changes were noted within WT and CN groups. The pattern of hedonic responses varied little in controls while the WT group showed increased liking for mid-range NaCl concentrations. Small, but significant fluctuations in ad libitum mix concentration occurred in both of these groups, but the differences appeared to be random rather than systematic. The results of this study indicate that preference for the taste of salt declines progressively toward a new baseline following reductions in sodium intake. These alterations may enhance maintenance of lowsodium diets for the treatment and prevention of hypertension. Further investigation is needed to establish the degree to which long-term compliance is contingent upon variation in salt taste preference.