Determinants of non-vaccination and incomplete vaccination in Canadian toddlers
Article [Version of Record]
Is part ofHuman vaccines and immunotherapeutics ; vol. 13, no 6, p. 1447–1453
Publisher(s)Taylor & Francis
Vaccination coverage remains suboptimal in Canada and sporadic outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases such as measles and pertussis continue to occur. This study was undertaken to identify sociodemographic determinants of total non-vaccination (having never received any vaccine), non-vaccination for measles (0 doses) and incomplete vaccination for pertussis (< 4 doses) among 2-year-old Canadian children. Data from the 2013 Childhood National Immunization Coverage Survey (CNICS) were used. Associations between sociodemographic factors and outcomes were measured by multiple logistic regressions and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were calculated. A total of 5,477 children were included in the analyses of total non-vaccination, and 3,899 children were included in the analysis of non-vaccination for measles and incomplete vaccination for pertussis. Overall, 2.7% of children (95% CI 2.0-3.3) had received no vaccine at all. Lower parental education, i.e., the responding parent having a high school diploma, trade certificate or less (compared with university graduation) was associated with total non-vaccination (aOR 1.99, 95% CI 1.02-3.91). Non-vaccination for measles was more frequent among children of single parent families (aOR 1.63, 95% CI 1.01-2.61) and those of parents with lower education (aOR 1.86, 95% CI 1.26-2.76). The odds of incomplete vaccination for pertussis was greater among children born outside Canada (aOR 3.10, 95% CI 1.73-5.58), of parents with lower education (aOR 1.92, 95% CI 1.41-2.62), and those whose household income was between $40,000 and $59,999 (aOR 1.47; 95% CI 1.04-2.07) or lower than $40,000 (aOR 1.58, 95% CI 1.13-2.22). Significant regional variation was also found for all outcomes. In conclusion, despite universal access to free childhood vaccines in Canada, regional variation and socioeconomic inequalities in vaccine uptake were still observed. Further analyses are warranted to identify barriers contributing to these variations.