Gender differences in the prediction of acute stress disorder from peritraumatic dissociation and distress among victims of violent crimes
Peritraumatic reactions, gender and ASD
Article [Accepted Manuscript]
Is part ofJournal of Interpersonal Violence
Background. Peritraumatic dissociation and distress are strong predictors of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) development. However, there is limited data concerning gender differences in these relations, particularly among victims of violent crimes (VVC). Objective. Examine whether peritraumatic dissociation and distress predict the number of ASD symptoms differently for men and women VVC. Methods. 162 adults (97 women, Mage = 39.6 yrs.), 63% of whom experienced physical assaults, completed the Acute Stress Disorder Interview, the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experience Questionnaire, and the Peritraumatic Distress Inventory. Analyses included t-tests and multiple hierarchical regressions models controlling for known PTSD risk factors. Results. The regression model showed dissociation and distress to be significant predictors of ASD for both men and women (β = .349 and β =.312 respectively; all p<.001). A significant 3-way interaction was also observed between peritraumatic distress (PDI), past potentially traumatic experiences and gender. In simple slopes analyses, the combination of high levels of PDI and of a high number of past potentially traumatic events were associated with greater risk of ASD in men only (b=3.78, p<.001). However, women experienced greater PDI (t (157) = 5.844, p = .005) than men, and elevated distress was associated with more ASD symptoms independently of past traumatic events. Major implications. Gender differences were revealed as a function of past potentially traumatic experiences. There is a cumulative impact of past potential traumas and current distress that predicts ASD in men, while in women; it contributes to ASD via increased distress.
Boisclair Demarble, Julie, Fortin, Christophe, D’Antono, Bianca & Guay, Stéphane (2017, février). Gender Differences in the Prediction of Acute Stress Disorder From Peritraumatic Dissociation and Distress Among Victims of Violent Crimes. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260517693000