Distinct miRNA profile of cellular and extracellular vesicles released from chicken tracheal cells following avian influenza virus infection
Article [Version of Record]
Is part ofVaccines ; vol. 8.
Innate responses provide the first line of defense against viral infections, including the influenza virus at mucosal surfaces. Communication and interaction between different host cells at the early stage of viral infections determine the quality and magnitude of immune responses against the invading virus. The release of membrane-encapsulated extracellular vesicles (EVs), from host cells, is defined as a refined system of cell-to-cell communication. EVs contain a diverse array of biomolecules, including microRNAs (miRNAs). We hypothesized that the activation of the tracheal cells with different stimuli impacts the cellular and EV miRNA profiles. Chicken tracheal rings were stimulated with polyI:C and LPS from Escherichia coli 026:B6 or infected with low pathogenic avian influenza virus H4N6. Subsequently, miRNAs were isolated from chicken tracheal cells or from EVs released from chicken tracheal cells. Differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs were identified in treated groups when compared to the control group. Our results demonstrated that there were 67 up-regulated miRNAs, 157 down-regulated miRNAs across all cellular and EV samples. In the next step, several genes or pathways targeted by DE miRNAs were predicted. Overall, this study presented a global miRNA expression profile in chicken tracheas in response to avian influenza viruses (AIV) and toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. The results presented predicted the possible roles of some DE miRNAs in the induction of antiviral responses. The DE candidate miRNAs, including miR-146a, miR-146b, miR-205a, miR-205b and miR-449, can be investigated further for functional validation studies and to be used as novel prophylactic and therapeutic targets in tailoring or enhancing antiviral responses against AIV.