Comparative full genome sequence analysis of wild-type and chicken embryo origin vaccine-like infectious laryngotracheitis virus field isolates from Canada
Article [Version of Record]
Is part ofInfection, genetics and evolution ; vol. 104.
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), occurs sporadically in poultry flocks in Canada. Live attenuated chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines are being used routinely to prevent and control ILTV infections. However, ILT outbreaks still occur since vaccine strains could revert to virulence in the field. In this study, 7 Canadian ILTV isolates linked to ILT outbreaks across different time in Eastern Canada (Ontario; ON and Quebec; QC) were whole genome sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the close relationship between the ON isolates and the CEO vaccines, whereas the QC isolates clustered with strains previously known as CEO revertant and wild-type ILTVs. Recombination network analysis of ILTV sequences revealed clear evidence of historical recombination between ILTV strains circulating in Canada and other geographical regions. The comparison of ON CEO clustered and QC CEO revertant clustered isolates with the LT Blen® CEO vaccine reference sequence showed amino acid differences in 5 and 12 open reading frames (ORFs), respectively. Similar analysis revealed amino acid differences in 32 ORFs in QC wild-type isolates. Compared to all CEO vaccine strains in the public domain, the QC wild-type isolates showed 15 unique mutational sites leading to amino acid changes in 13 ORFs. Our outcomes add to the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms behind ILTV genetic variance and provide genetic markers between wild-type and vaccine strains.