Untargeted and targeted metabolomics reveal that adenosine nucleotides released in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae supernatant inhibit porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication
Article [Accepted Manuscript]
Under embargo until: 2023-02-18
Is part ofTalanta ; vol. 242.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most devastating viruses in the swine industry and causes major economic losses. To date, there has not been an effective antiviral treatment for the disease. We have shown in previous studies that culture supernatant of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App), the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, possesses antiviral activity in vitro against PRRSV, and we have clearly established that the antiviral activity was mediated by small molecular weight (i.e., <1 kDa), heat resistant metabolites present in the App supernatant ultrafiltrates. However, the identity of those metabolites remains unknown. The objective of the current study was to identify the active metabolites using untargeted and targeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomics and test their respective antiviral activity against PRRSV in the Jude Porcine Lung Epithelial Cell Line (SJPL). The results presented reveal very significant antiviral activity of App supernatant ultrafiltrates against PRRSV in SJPL cells. Consequently, we identified and quantified several adenosine nucleotide metabolites present in App supernatant ultrafiltrates using mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, and the concentrations detected were very high. SJPL cells infected with PRRSV and treated with 2′-adenosine monophosphate (2-AMP), 3′-adenosine monophosphate (3-AMP) or 5′-adenosine monophosphate (5-AMP) significantly reduced PRRSV infection. Interestingly, many antiviral drugs or prodrugs are adenosine analogs, and the mechanism of action was previously elucidated. Currently marketed nucleoside analog drugs could potentially be used to treat PRRSV infection.