Analysis of whole-genome sequences of infectious laryngotracheitis virus isolates from poultry flocks in Canada : evidence of recombination
Article [Version of Record]
Is part ofViruses ; vol. 12, no. 11.
Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is a herpes virus that causes an acute respiratory disease of poultry known as infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT). Chicken embryo origin (CEO) and tissue culture origin (TCO) live attenuated vaccines are routinely used for the control of ILT. However, vaccine virus is known to revert to virulence, and it has been recently shown that ILT field viral strains can undergo recombination with vaccinal ILTV and such recombinant ILT viruses possess greater transmission and pathogenicity potential. Based on complete or partial genes of the ILTV genome, few studies genotyped ILTV strains circulating in Canada, and so far, information is scarce on whole-genome sequencing or the presence of recombination in Canadian ILTV isolates. The objective of this study was to genetically characterize the 14 ILTV isolates that originated from three provinces in Canada (Alberta, British Columbia and Quebec). To this end, a phylogenetic analysis of 50 ILTV complete genome sequences, including 14 sequences of Canadian origin, was carried out. Additional phylogenetic analysis of the unique long, unique short and inverted repeat regions of the ILTV genome was also performed. We observed that 71%, 21% and 7% of the ILTV isolates were categorized as CEO revertant, wild-type and TCO vaccine-related, respectively. The sequences were also analyzed for potential recombination events, which included evidence in the British Columbia ILTV isolate. This event involved two ILTV vaccine (CEO) strains as parental strains. Recombination analysis also identified that one ILTV isolate from Alberta as a potential parental strain for a United States origin ILTV isolate. The positions of the possible recombination breakpoints were identified. These results indicate that the ILTV wild-type strains can recombine with vaccinal strains complicating vaccine-mediated control of ILT. Further studies on the pathogenicity of these ILTV strains, including the recombinant ILTV isolate are currently ongoing.