Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus whole-genome sequencing efficacy with field clinical samples using a poly(A)-tail viral genome purification method
Article [Accepted Manuscript]
The genomic surveillance of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is based on sequencing of the ORF5 gene of the virus, which covers only 4% of the entire viral genome. It is expected that PRRSV whole-genome sequencing (WGS) will improve PRRSV genomic data and allow better understanding of clinical discrepancies observed in the field when using ORF5 sequencing. Our main objective was to implement an efficient method for WGS of PRRSV from clinical samples. The viral genome was purified using a poly(A)-tail viral genome purification method and sequenced using Illumina technology. We tested 149 PRRSV-positive samples: 80 sera, 33 lungs, 33 pools of tissues, 2 oral fluids, and 1 processing fluid (i.e., castration liquid). Overall, WGS of 67.1% of PRRSV-positive cases was successful. The viral load, in particular for tissues, had a major impact on the PRRSV WGS success rate. Serum was the most efficient type of sample to conduct PRRSV WGS poly(A)-tail assays, with a success rate of 76.3%, and this result can be explained by improved sequencing reads dispersion matching throughout the entire viral genome. WGS was unsuccessful for all pools of tissue and lung samples with Cq values > 26.5, whereas it could still be successful with sera at Cq ≤ 34.1. Evaluation of results of highly qualified personnel confirmed that laboratory skills could affect PRRSV WGS efficiency. Oral fluid samples seem very promising and merit further investigation because, with only 2 samples of low viral load (Cq = 28.8, 32.8), PRRSV WGS was successful.