Coinfections and their molecular consequences in the porcine respiratory tract
Article [Version of Record]
Is part ofVeterinary research ; vol. 51.
Understudied, coinfections are more frequent in pig farms than single infections. In pigs, the term “Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex” (PRDC) is often used to describe coinfections involving viruses such as swine Influenza A Virus (swIAV), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), and Porcine CircoVirus type 2 (PCV2) as well as bacteria like Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Bordetella bronchiseptica. The clinical outcome of the various coinfection or superinfection situations is usually assessed in the studies while in most of cases there is no clear elucidation of the fine mechanisms shaping the complex interactions occurring between microorganisms. In this comprehensive review, we aimed at identifying the studies dealing with coinfections or superinfections in the pig respiratory tract and at presenting the interactions between pathogens and, when possible, the mechanisms controlling them. Coinfections and superinfections involving viruses and bacteria were considered while research articles including protozoan and fungi were excluded. We discuss the main limitations complicating the interpretation of coinfection/superinfection studies, and the high potential perspectives in this fascinating research field, which is expecting to gain more and more interest in the next years for the obvious benefit of animal health.