Emergence of a new type of porcine circovirus (PCV) in swine: a type 1 and type 2 PCV recombinant.
Series/Report no.Veterinary Microbiology;Vol. 144 No 1-2
In late September 2008, tissue samples from piglets experiencing an acute outbreak of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) were submitted to the Veterinary diagnostic service of the University of Montreal. Several diagnostic assays were performed including a multiplex real-time quantitative PCR assay (mrtqPCR) for the detection and differentiation of porcine circovirus (PCV) type 2a and 2b genotypes in the lung and lymph nodes. The pig samples were found to be positive for PCV2a using the mrtqPCR but odd results were obtained. The Ct values obtained with mrtqPCR probes targeting the ORF1 and ORF2 of PCV2 were not as expected which suggested the presence of genomic variations in the PCV2 viral genome. Ultimately, a total of three diagnostic cases with mrtqPCR unusual results were investigated. After virus isolation and sequence analyses, a new type of PCV was identified in those three cases. Based on sequence analyses, this new PCV genome contains the ORF1 of PCV1 and the ORF2 of PCV2a and its entire viral genome nucleotide identity compared to PCV1, PCV2a and 2b are 86.4%, 88.7% and 86.5%, respectively. It is proposed to name this new PCV by taking into account the nomenclature of Segales et al. (2008) and by indicating the origin of the ORF1 at first and the origin of the ORF2 in second. Consequently, the name proposed for this new PCV is PCV1/2a. The prevalence of PCV1/2a seems to be very low in Quebec, Canada (2.5% of PCV positive cases), and its origin is now in debate.
Gagnon, C.A., Music, N., Fontaine, G., Tremblay, D., Harel, J. (2010, July). Emergence of a new type of porcine circovirus (PCV) in swine: a type 1 and type 2 PCV recombinant. Veterinary Microbiology, 144(1-2), 18-23.