In Vitro Ketamine CYP3A Mediated Metabolism Study using Mammalian Liver S9 Fractions, cDNA Expressed Enzymes and Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Article [Accepted Manuscript]
Is part ofBiomedical chromatography ; vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 1660-1669.
Ketamine is widely used in medicine in combination with several benzodiazepines including midazolam. The objectives of this study were to develop a novel HPLC-MS/SRM method capable of quantifying ketamine and norketamine using an isotopic dilution strategy in biological matrices and study the formation of norketamine, the principal metabolite of ketamine with and without the presence of midazolam, a well-known CYP3A substrate. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a Thermo Betasil Phenyl 100 x 2 mm column combined with an isocratic mobile phase composed of acetonitrile, methanol, water and formic acid (60:20:20:0.4) at a flow rate of 300 μL/min. The mass spectrometer was operating in selected reaction monitoring mode and the analytical range was set at 0.05–50 μM. The precision (%CV) and accuracy (%NOM) observed were ranging from 3.9–7.8 and 95.9.2–111.1% respectively. The initial rate of formation of norketamine was determined using various ketamine concentration and Km values of 18.4 μM, 13.8 μM and 30.8 μM for rat, dog and human liver S9 fractions were observed respectively. The metabolic stability of ketamine on liver S9 fractions was significantly higher in human (T1/2 = 159.4 min) compared with rat (T1/2 = 12.6 min) and dog (T1/2 = 7.3 min) liver S9 fractions. Moreover significantly lower IC50 and Ki values observed in human compared with rat and dog liver S9 fractions. Experiments with cDNA expressed CYP3A enzymes showed the formation of norketamine is mediated by CYP3A but results suggest an important contribution from others isoenzymes, most likely CYP2C particularly in rat.