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dc.contributor.advisorLévy, Emile
dc.contributor.authorRahmani Yeganeh, Pantea
dc.date.accessioned2017-08-25T15:29:47Z
dc.date.availableNO_RESTRICTIONfr
dc.date.available2017-08-25T15:29:47Z
dc.date.issued2017-07-10
dc.date.submitted2016-12
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1866/19153
dc.subjectMitochondriafr
dc.subjectMitochondrial function and dysfunctionfr
dc.subjectInflammatory bowel diseasefr
dc.subjectInflammationfr
dc.subjectCrohn's diseasefr
dc.subjectExperimental colitisfr
dc.subjectOxidative stressfr
dc.subjectPolyphenolsfr
dc.subjectPreventionfr
dc.subjectTreatmentfr
dc.subjectStress oxydatiffr
dc.subjectMitochondriefr
dc.subjectMaladies inflammatoires intestinalesfr
dc.subject.otherHealth Sciences - Nutrition / Sciences de la santé - Alimentation et nutrition (UMI : 0570)fr
dc.titleThe impact of apple peel polyphenols on intestinal and mitochondrial functions in experimental colitisfr
dc.typeThèse ou mémoire / Thesis or Dissertation
etd.degree.disciplineNutritionfr
etd.degree.grantorUniversité de Montréalfr
etd.degree.levelMaîtrise / Master'sfr
etd.degree.nameM. Sc.fr
dcterms.abstractBackground: We have recently shown that dysregulation of redox-sensitive signaling pathways and oxidative damage to biological structures are major contributors to experimental ulcerative colitis. We also demonstrated the powerful anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of dietary apple peel polyphenols (DAPP) in the intestine. Objectives: As mitochondria are major sources and target of free radicals, as well as exhibit various important cellular functions, we evaluated their roles in intestinal colitis and their responses to DAPP. Methods: Induction of intestinal inflammation in C57BL6 mice was performed by administration of 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Two different doses of DAPP (200 and 400 mg/kg/day) were administered by gavage for 10 days (before and during DSS administration) to examine the preventive and curative effects, respectively, on inflammation and oxidative stress (OxS) in the intestine, and on mitochondrial functions. Results: DSS caused a significant weight loss, shortening of the colon, increased OxS (noted by lipid peroxidation), and raised inflammation (verified by infiltration of inflammatory cells, up-regulation of MPO, and elevated TNF-α and COX2 protein expression). Furthermore, DSS induced perturbations in mitochondrial biogenesis, as reflected by alterations of the transcription factor PGC1α and mitochondrial function characterized by diminished Adenosine-5'-Triphosphate (ATP) production, lowered antioxidant defense (GPx and SOD2), amplified apoptosis (as illustrated by the high expression of Cytochrome C and AIF), and defects in DNA integrity (high 8-OHdG). However, DAPP administration improved macroscopic parameters (e.g. weight loss, colon shortening) and reduced DSS-induced clinical signs. DAPP showed an evident capability of reducing inflammation (as noted by decreased TNF-α, iNOS, COX-2 and AP-1) and OxS (as shown by reduced malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide levels and increased GPx) in DSS mice. Our findings also revealed that DAPP partially corrected mitochondrial dysfunction related to redox homeostasis, fatty acid β-oxidation, ATP synthesis, apoptosis and regulatory mitochondrial transcription factors (PGC1α, PPARγ and Nrf-2). Conclusion: DAPP have the ability to act on intestinal OxS, inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction, thereby alleviating colitis progression via the modulation of cellular energy, OxS, antioxidant capacity, apoptosis and mtDNA integrity.fr
dcterms.abstractContexte: L'inflammation et le stress oxydatif (OxS) participent à la pathogenèse de la colite ulcéreuse (CU). Nos résultats récents montrent que les polyphénols de la pelure de pomme (DAPP) jouent un rôle clé dans la prévention de la maladie. Objectifs: Évaluer les effets préventifs et curatifs du DAPP sur la CU et démontrer leur impact sur la dysfonction mitochondriale. Méthode: Une induction de l’inflammation intestinale a été effectuée chez des souris par administration du dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Des doses de DAPP (200 et 400 mg/kg/j) ont été administrées par gavage pendant 10 jours afin d’évaluer les effets préventifs et curatifs, respectivement, sur l’Inflammation et le OxS au niveau intestinal ainsi que sur les fonctions mitochondriales. Résultats: Le DSS a provoqué une perte de poids, un raccourcissement du côlon, une augmentation du stress oxydant, niveaux de malondialdéhyde et une inflammation documentée par l’infiltration des cellules inflammatoires, la myéloperoxydase et les cytokines inflammatoires. D’autre part, le DSS a induit des désordres au niveau de la biogenèse (PGC1α) et des fonctions de la mitochondrie : diminution de l’ATP, altération des enzymes antioxydantes (SOD2 et GPX1), augmentation de l’apoptose (Bcl 2, Bax et Cytochrome C), et des défauts de l’intégrité de l’ADN (baisse d’OGG1). Cependant, le DAPP a amélioré significativement l’inflammation et le stress oxydant de l’intestin tout en corrigeant les aberrations mitochondriales. Conclusions: Les polyphénols ont la capacité d’agir sur le stress oxydant et le profil inflammatoire de l’intestin ainsi que sur le dysfonctionnement mitochondrial. Ils pourraient donc intervenir efficacement dans la CU.fr
dcterms.languageengfr


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